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Unconfined Compression Test

Unconfined Compression (UC) Test

The primary purpose of this test is to determine the unconfined compressive strength, which is then used to calculate the unconsolidated undrained shear strength of the clay under unconfined conditions. According to the ASTM standard, the unconfined compressive strength (qu) is defined as the compressive stress at which an unconfined cylindrical specimen of
Soil Stability Factors

General Considerations and Assumptions in the Soil Stability Analysis

There are three distinct parts to an analysis of the stability of a slope. They are:. If the analysis is for a natural slope, it is essential that the sample be undisturbed. In such important respects as rate of shear application and state of initial consolidation, the condition of testing must represent as closely as possible the most unfavorable conditions ever likely
By Haseeb Jamal - Dec 02, 2017

Active Earth Pressure on Retaining Wall

Consider an element at a depth z below the ground surface, When the wall is at the point of moving away (Outwards) from the backfill, there are two kinds of pressure acting on it. In this case the sand back-fill behind the retaining wall is saturated with water. The lateral pressure is made up of two components: Lateral pressure due to submerged weight (gamma)
Soil Particle Characteristics
By Haseeb Jamal - Nov 11, 2017

Characteristics of Soil Particles

The predict the sub grade performance of the given soil. As the purpose of the sub grade is to given adequate support to the pavement thus the sub grade should posses’ sufficient stability under the adverse climate and loading conditions. Consists largely of mineral matter formed by the disintegration or decomposition of rocks, caused by the action of water,
Determine Plastic Limit of Soil

To Determine Liquid Limit of Soil & Plastic Limit of Soil

Liquid Limit Device ‑ a mechanical device consisting of a brass cup suspended from a carriage designed to control its drop onto a hard rubber base. The device may be operated by either a hand crank or electric motor. Cup ‑ brass with mass (including cup hanger) of 185 to 215 g. Cam ‑ designed to raise the cup smoothly and continuously to its maximum height
Shrinkage Limit of Soil

To Determine The Shrinkage Limit of Soil

Shrinkage dish, electric oven, mercury, electric balance, sieve#40, spatula and containers. Take a soil sample passing through sieve#40 and add some amount of water in it to form a thick uniform paste. Take the shrinkage dish, weigh it, and put some of the soil mixture in it by spatula, fill it and again weigh it. Place the shrinkage dish in the oven for 24hours.
Earth Pressure Concept

Rankine's Assumptions for Earth Pressure Theory for Active/Passive Pressure

As originally proposed, Rankine's theory is applied to uniform cohesion-less soil only. Later it was extended to include cohesive soil by Bell in 1915. The following cases of active earth pressure on cohesionless backfill will now be considered: Dry or moist backfill Submerged backfill Partly submerged backfill Backfill with uniform surcharge Backfill with sloping surcharge
Stress in Soil

Methods to Determine Stress in Soil

Both immediate and consolidation settlement analysis requires estimate of increase in pressure (ΔHσ) in the soil layers from the applied loads. Several methods are available to estimate the increase in pressure at any depth z from the applied load. We will discuss: 2h: 1v Slope Method An early method is to use 2 (horizontal): 1 (vertical) slope as shown in figure.
Specific Gravity of Soil

To Determine the Specific Gravity of Soil

Take at least 25g of soil which has been passed through sieve#4 and place it in an oven at fixed temperature of 105-110C0for 24hours to dry it completely. Clean and dry the pycnometer thoroughly and find its mass (M1). Find the mass (M2) of pycnometer by placing dried soil in it. Add sufficient quantity of water to fill the pycnometer up to the given mark and then
Shear Strength of Soil

Shear Strength of Pervious and Impervious Soils

Soils derive their strength from contact between particles capable of transmitting normal as well as shear forces. The contact between soil particles is mainly due to friction and the corresponding stress between the soil grains is called the effective (or inter-granular) stress s'. Thus, the shear strength of a soil is mainly governed by the effective stress. Besides the
Soil Mechanics by Terzaghi
By Haseeb Jamal - Jul 21, 2017

Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice By Karl Terzaghi

Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice By Karl Terzaghi, Ralph Brazelton Peck, Gholamreza Mesri
Stress Analysis in Soil
By Haseeb Jamal - Jul 17, 2017

Total Stress and Effective Stress Analysis in Soil

Plastic saturated soils (silts and clays) usually have lower shear strength than non-plastic cohesion less soil and are more susceptible to bearing capacity failure. For saturated plastic soils, the bearing capacity often has to be calculated for different condition. Total Stress Analysis (Short term condition) that uses the un-drained shear strength of the plastic soil. Effective
Engineering Clay Structure

Engineering Properties of Silt and Clay

Silt and Clay are considered to be smaller family members of soil group, Even small amounts of fines can have significant effects on the engineering properties of soils. If as little as 10 percent of the particles in sand and gravel are smaller than the No.200 sieve size, the soil can be virtually impervious, especially when the coarse grains are well graded. Silica is decided to be
Moisture Determination in Soil By Oven Drying Method

To Determine Moisture Content of Soil By Oven Drying Method

The water-content determination is a routine laboratory procedure. ASTM has designeated it with a Standard, ASTM D-2216-90 which can be found in “ASTM Standards vol. 4.08”, and also AASHTO T-265, found under “AASHTO Materials: Part II: Tests”. This is a laboratory procedure to determine the amount of water Ww present in a quantity of soil in terms of its
Modes of Shear Failure of Soil -
By Haseeb Jamal - Jun 08, 2017

Modes of Shear Failure of Soil

There are three modes of shear failure, i.e. General, Local and Punching shear failures depending upon the compressibility of soil and depth of footing with respect to its breadth (i.e D/B Ratio). When the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil is reached, it may fail in one of the following three failure mode depending upon the type of soil and depth to width ratio of the

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