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Feb 26, 2016 / Haseeb Jamal -

5 Travel Myths You Need to Stop Believing Right Now

Feb 26, 2016 / Haseeb Jamal -

Canal Comes Alive with Lighted Boat Parade.

Types of Canal Lining

This lining is recommended for the canal in full banking. The cement concrete lining is widely accepted. It can resist the effect of scouring and erosion very efficiently. The velocity of flow may be kept above 2.5 m/s. It can eliminate completely growth of weeds. The lining is done by the following steps: (a) Preparation of sub-grade, (b) Laying of concrete

Irrigation Efficiency - Definition and Its Types

The ratio of the amount of water available (output) to the amount of water supplied (input) is known as Irrigation Efficiency. It is expressed in percentage. The following are the various types of irrigation efficiencies: (a) Water Conveyance Efficiency: (ηc). (b) Water Application Efficiency: (ηa). (c) Water Use Efficiency (ηu): (d) Consumptive use Efficiency (ηcu):
Ploughing - Factors Affecting Duty of Water in Irrigation

Methods of Improving and Factors Affecting Duty of Water

If the soil of the canal bed is porous and coarse grained, it leads to more seepage loss and consequently low duty. If it consists of alluvial soil, the percolation loss will be less and the soil retains the moisture for longer period and consequently the duty will be high.... When the
Lined Canals

Advantages and Disadvantages of Canal Lining

Advantages of lined canals: Avoiding excessive loss of water due to seepage, To avoid erosion, To avoid water logging of adjacent lands due to seepage, To reduce flow resistance, To help in control of weeds aquatic growth, To provide needed side slope stability
Sources of Irrigation Water

Sources of Irrigation Water - Ground Water & Surface Water

It is found on the surface of the land. These include spring water, River water, lake water, etc. This can be supplied to the field by weir (check dam) by gravity or by using pump. Check dam /weir/ system is used only when the source of water is from river, or spring water that
Open Flow

Definition, Types & Comparison of Open & Pipe Flow

It is usually the flow in an Open Channels Surface Flow: The flow which is above the ground level is called surface flow. Ground Flow: The flow which is below the surface of the earth is called ground flow. Open channel flow is not completely enclosed by boundaries, unlike pipe flow. Open channel is always under the action of gravity, while pipe can be under gravity
Open Channel Shapes

Shapes, Types & Properties of Open Channels

Open channel can be said to be as the deep hollow surface having usually the top surface open to atmosphere. Open channel flow can be said to be as the flow of fluid (water) over the deep hollow surface (channel) with the cover of atmosphere on the top. Examples of open channels flow are river, streams, flumes, sewers, ditches and lakes etc. we can be said to be as
Water Logging & Salinity in Pakistan

Management of Water Logging & Salinity in Pakistan

The irrigation system in Pakistan has brought great benefits to many people. Dependence on the natural hydrological system has been minimized and new settlements in canal irrigated areas have been established. However, the canal system has been accompanied by problems, which are increasingly difficult to overcome. Water logging and salinity are two of
Consumptive Use of Water

Methods of Estimation of Consumptive Use of Water

To measure or estimation the consumptive use there are two main methods: Direct Methods/Field Methods Empirical Methods Pan evaporation method. In this method of estimation of water consumptive use, soil moisture measurements are taken before and after each irrigation.
Design of Precast Parabolic Channels in Peshawar

Design of Precast Parabolic Channels in Peshawar

Discrepancy feature is the conveyance losses (35 to 50%). Irrigation system of KPK (Province of Pakistan) is facing severe Operational problems including water scarcity, water logging, and salinity. Reason was due to the traditional brick lining. The following steps are involved
Open Well

Construction of Open Wells

A water well is a lot more than a drilled hole, but for many people, the above ground part of the drilling process is the only part they see. A water well is a specially engineered hole in the ground; For ground water monitoring, or for scientific research purposes, wells may be drilled in a way that allows the specialists to closely examine the rock formations and take frequent
Consumptive Use of Water

What is Consumptive Use of Water and Factors Affecting it

It is the quantity of water used by the vegetation growth of a given area. It is the amount of water required by a crop for its vegetated growth to evapotranspiration and building of plant tissues plus evaporation from soils and intercepted precipitation. It is expressed in terms of depth of water. Consumptive use varies with temperature, humidity, wind speed,
Cross Drainage Works Machinery

Definition and Types of Cross Drainage Works

A cross drainage work is a structure carrying the discharge from a natural stream across a canal intercepting the stream. Canal comes across obstructions like rivers, natural drains and other canals. The various types of structures that are built to carry the canal water across the above
History of Irrigation Engineering

Introduction & History of Irrigation Engineering

Irrigation is the controlled application of water to croplands. Its primary objective is to create an optimal soil moisture regime for maximizing crop production and quality while at the same time minimizing the environmental degradation inherent in irrigation of agricultural lands. Irrigation is thus critical for food security in semi-arid and arid areas. Irrigation has two
Rivers of Pakistan

Water Resources of Pakistan and Hydraulic Structures in Pakistan

According to the United Nations' "UN World Water Development Report", the total actual renewable water resources decreased from 2,961 m³ per capita in 2000 to 1,420 m³ per capita in 2005. A more recent study indicates an available supply of water of little more than 1,000 m³ per person, which puts Pakistan in the category of a high stress country. In view of a growing

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