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Canal Comes Alive with Lighted Boat Parade.

Structure Analysis - Introduction and Background

The determination of internal actions and deformations is called Structural Analysis OR The determination of response of the structure to loads. The process of determination can be by: Structural Analysis Softwares Manual manipulations and calculations Structural Analysis consists of: Analysis & Design of a structure

Stability - Stable & Unstable Structures & Members

The resistance offered by a structure to undesirable movement like sliding, collapsing and over turning etc is called stability. STABLE STRUCTURES: A stricter is said to be stable if it can resist the applied load without moving OR A structure is said to be stable if it has sufficient number of reactions to resist the load without moving. UNSTABLE STRUCTURE A structure which has

Steps in Designing a Transfer Floor

Design of reinforced concrete transfer floors, although routinely performed by structural design engineers, is a very challenging task. The transfer floors are commonly used in multi-storey buildings, and they are major structural elements carrying a number of floors. Normally the entire building, 10 to 15 levels, is carried by a transfer slabs. The major problem is the evaluation

Analyzing Equilibrium and Redundancy of Indeterminate Structures

While analyzing any indeterminate structure using any method, it is necessary that the solution satisfy the following requirements: Equilibrium of the Structure Compatibility of the Structure Force Displacement Requirements
Types of Structures

Definition and Types of Structures

Truss (Pin connected joints): A type of structure formed by members in triangular form, the resulting figure is called a truss. In truss joints are pin connected and loads are applied at joints. No shear force & bending moment are produced. Only axial compression and axial tension is to be determined while analyzing a truss. Structural Members: Those members that are
Tunnel Engineering

Tunnel Engineering | Methods of Tunneling and Hazards

Tunnel, passage, gallery, or roadway beneath the ground or underwater. Tunnels are used for highway traffic, railways, and subways; to transport water, sewage, oil, and gas; to divert rivers around dam sites while the dam is being built; and for military and civil-defense purposes. Subterranean galleries are a series of horizontal passageways on different levels, as in
Reinforced Concrete Slab

Functions of Slab and Design of Slab

A flat piece of concrete, put on the walls or columns of a structure. It serves as a walking surface but may also serve as a load bearing member, as in slab homes. Its necessary to check the slab deflection for all load cases both for short and long term basis. In general, under full service load, Deflection (d) < L/250 or 40 mm whichever is smaller. Check for lateral

Methods of Simple Truss Analysis

A truss structure is composed of slender members joined together at their end points Members are commonly wooden struts or metal bars Joint connections are formed by bolting or welding the ends of the members to a common plate (gusset plate) or by simply passing a large bolt or pin through each of the members
Simply Supported UDL Beam Formulas

Simply Supported UDL Beam Formulas and Equations

A simply supported beam is the most simple arrangement of the structure. The beam is supported at each end, and the load is distributed along its length. A simply supported beam cannot have any translational displacements at its support points, but no restriction is placed on rotations at the supports. Fig:1 Formulas for Design of Simply Supported Beam having

Structural Design Criteria for Coastal Structures

Coastal structures are the structures that are constructed near to the coastal areas for different purposes. Different types of coastal structures are constructed under different circumstances but the criteria to be used for the selection and design of specific type of coastal structure must be authentic and comply with the standards.
Retrofitting - RC Jacketing

Retrofitting Techniques for Existing Damaged Buildings

Primary aim of strengthening a structure is to increase its load bearing capacity with respect to its previous condition. Only those aspects related to flexure are discussed here. Established techniques which have been in use successfully for a number of years are recognized as follows: Over Slabbing Sprayed Concrete with Additional Reinforcement Steel Plate bonding External Prestressing
Stone retaining wall

Definition and Types of Retaining Walls

A retaining wall is a structure that retains (holds back) any material (usually earth) and prevents it from sliding or eroding away. It is designed so that to resist the material pressure of the material that it is holding back. An earth retaining structure can be considered to have the following types: Gravity Walls Reinforced Gravity Walls Concrete Cantilever retaining wall Counter-fort / Buttressed retaining wall Precast concrete retaining wall Prestressed retaining wall
Reinforcement Detailing in Concrete

Reinforcement Detailing in Concrete Structures

Detailing is as important as design since proper detailing of engineering designs is an essential link in the planning and engineering process as some of the most devastating connections. ACI Reinforcement location in non prismatic beam. ACI reinforcement detailing in cantilever beam. A design engineer's responsibility should include assuring the structural safety
Bonded Concrete Slab Post Tensioning

Bonded Concrete Slab Post Tensioning

Post-tensioning is a method of reinforcing (strengthening) concrete or other materials with high-strength steel strands rebars, typically referred to as tendons. It has the following benefits as compared to unbonded post tensioning. Bonded post-tensioned concrete is the descriptive term for a method of applying compression after pouring concrete and the curing
Types of Supports and Connections

Types of Supports for Loads

Roller supports are free to rotate and translate along the surface upon which the roller rests. The surface may be horizontal, vertical or slopped at any angle. Roller supports are commonly located at one end of long bridges in the form of bearing pads. This support allows bridge structure to expand and contract with temperature changes and without this expansion the forces

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