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Modes of Shear Failure of Soil | General, Local, Punching Shear Failure

There are three modes of shear failure, i.e. General, Local and Punching shear failures depending upon the compressibility of soil and depth of footing with respect to its breadth (i.e D/B Ratio). When the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil is reached, it may fail in one of the following three failure mode depending upon the type of soil and depth to width ratio of the

How to find Bearing Capacity of Soil

Analytic method i.e. through bearing capacity equations like using Terzaghi equation, Meyerhof equation, Hansen equation etc. Correlation with field test data e.g. Standard penetration test (SPT), Cone penetration test (CPT) etc. On site determination of bearing capacity e.g Plate load test, Pile load test. Presumptive bearing capacity (recommended bearing capacity,

Index Properties of Soil

The soil properties on which their classification and identification are based are known as index properties. The index properties which are used are: Grain Size Distribution Consistency Limits Plasticity Index The sieves are arranged, keeping the finest below and the coarser above it. A definite quantity of soil is dried in an electric oven (for 24 hrs at 105°C) and put in the top sieve.

Why Study Soil Mechanics in Civil Engg?

Soil is a natural agglomerate used as a construction as well as supporting material and is composed of particles of broken rocks which keep on changing in their texture, structure, consistency, color, chemical,Soil is a natural agglomerate used as a construction as well as supporting material and is composed of particles of broken rocks which keep on changing in their

Standard Values for Liquid Limit of Soil and Limitations of L.L Test

The liquid limit of a soil is the moisture content, expressed as a percentage of the mass of the oven-dried soil, at the boundary between the liquid and plastic states The moisture content at this boundary is arbitrarily defined as the liquid limit and is the moisture content at a consistency as determined by means of the standard liquid limit apparatus. It is one of

Sieve Analysis of Coarse Grained Soil

Arrange different types of sieves in order of there decreasing size of opening. Find the total weight of the given soil sample and pour it in the top sieve.

5 Factors Affecting Formation of Soil

The formation of soil starts with the parent material and continues for a very long period of time taking 1000 years or more. As the parent material is weathered and / or transported, deposited and precipitated it is transformed into a soil. The parent material may be in the form of bedrock, glacial deposits, and loose deposits under water or material moving down sloping

Common Types of Soil

Distinguished by their relative stability under wheel loads when confined, by their high permeability and by their low shrinkage and expansion in deter mental amount with change in moisture content.

Compaction of Soil and Factors Affecting Compaction

Compaction is the application of mechanical energy to a soil to rearrange the particles and reduce the void ratio. The principal reason for compacting soil is to reduce subsequent settlement under working loads. As water is added to a soil ( at low moisture content) it becomes easier for the particles to move past one another during the application of the compacting

Atterberg's Limits of Soil Classification - Atterberg Test

A. Atterberg defined the boundaries of four states in terms of "limits". A fine-gained soil can exist in any of several states; which state depends on the amount of water in the soil system. When water is added to a dry soil, each particle is covered with a film of adsorbed water. If the addition of water is continued, the thickness of the water film on a particle increases.

Physical Properties of Soil

Using volumes is not very convenient in most calculations. An alternative measure that is used is the voids ratio, e. This is defined as the ratio of the volume of voids, Vv to the volume of solids, Vs, that is A related quantity is the porosity, n, which is defined as ratio of the volume of voids to the total volume. The degree of saturation, S, has an important influence on

Classification of Soil on Particle Size & Moisture Content Basis

There are two soil classification systems in common use for engineering purposes. The Unified Soil Classification System is used for virtually all geotechnical engineering work except highway and road construction, where the AASHTO soil classification system is used. Both systems use the results of grain size analysis and determinations of Atterberg limits to

Sieve Analysis & Particle Size Analysis

The grain size characteristics of soils that are predominantly coarse grained are evaluated by a sieve analysis. A nest of sieves is prepared by stacking test sieves one above the other with the largest opening at the top followed by sieves of successively smaller openings and a catch pan at the bottom. Opening mesh sizes of commonly used sieves are shown in table

Earth Pressure Coefficients - Types, Concept & Theory

In 1929 Terzaghi (The Father of Soil Mechanics) conducted experiments on the retaining wall and showed the relation of pressure on the wall if wall changes its position i.e to move inwards to the backfill, outwards of it or remain at its place. There are three types of earth pressures on the basis of the movement of the wall. Earth Pressure at rest, Active Earth Pressure,

Standard Compaction Test and Modified Compaction Test

Soil is compacted into a mould in 3 - 5 equal layers, each layer receiving 25 blows of a hammer of standard weight. The apparatus is shown in Figure 1 above. The energy (compactive effort) supplied in this test is 595 kJ/m3. The important dimensions are:

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