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Common Types of Soil

By: Haseeb Jamal / On: Apr 02, 2017 / Types of
Types of Soil
 
 

Gravel

  • Course grained soils that possess little or no cohesion.
  • Distinguished by their relative stability under wheel loads when confined, by their high permeability and by their low shrinkage and expansion in deter mental amount with change in moisture content.
  • Size range from 2 mm to 60 mm

Sand:

  • Fine grained soils of low to medium plasticity intermediate in size b\w sand & clay.
  • Generally possess little cohesion, undergo considerable shrinkage and expansion with. Change in moisture content and possess a variable amount of stability under wheel load.
  • Organic soils contain appreciable amount of decomposed organic matter and is generally highly compressible & unstable.
  • Size of sand ranges from 0.06 mm to 2 mm

Silt

  • The size of silt particles range from 0.002 mm to 0.06 mm

Clay:

  • Fine grain soil of size 0.002 mm or finer.
  • Possess medium to high plasticity, have considerable strength when dry, undergo extreme changes in volume with change in moisture content and practically impervious to flow of water.

Types:

  • Lean clay: Silty clay.
  • Flat clay: Finer colloidal clay with high plasticity
  • Clay may possess considerable strength in their natural state; this strength is sharply reduced and sometimes completely destroyed when their natural structure is disturbed, that is when they are remolded.

Loam:

Agricultural term, fairly well graded from course to fine that is easily worked & that is the reason of plant life.

  • Sandy loam
  • Silty loam &
  • Clay loam

Depending on the size of predominant soil fraction

Loess:

  • Uniform grain size predominantly silts with low density.

Muck:

  • Soft silt or clay very high in organic content
  • Found in swampy areas and rivers or lake bottoms.

Peat:

  • Composed of practically decomposed vegetable matter
  • Due to high water content, woody natural and high compressibility it is extremely undesirable for use in roads.
 

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