A floor is the bottom surface of a room or vehicle. Flooring is the general term for a permanent covering of a floor, or for the work of installing such a floor covering.
Types of Floors
Following are some of the major types of floors:
1. Mud Floor:
These floors are not prepared in commercial or professional buildings but only in residential buildings in rural areas.
The floor whose topping is of brick. These are easy to construct and repair. but the surface resulting from these is not smooth and is rough, hence, easily absorbs and retains moisture which may cause dampness in the building.
Method of construction of Brick Floor:
For constructing a brick floor, the top surface of earth or murram filling is properly consolidated. Over this compacted earth, a layer of clean sand about 10 cm thick is evenly spread. Then a layer of lime concrete (1:4:8) or lean cement concrete (1:4:16) is laid, compacted and cured. Over this base concrete well soaked bricks are laid in cement mortar (1:4) in any suitable bond. In case pointing is to be done, the minimum thickness of joints should not exceed 2 mm and and the mortar in joints is struck off with a trowel. When the pointing is to be done, the minimum thickness of joints is kept 6mm and the pointing may be done.
The floors are suitable for stores, godowns etc.
The floor whose topping is of tiles is called tile floor. The tiles used may be of any desired quality, color, shape or thickness.
Method of construction of Tile Floor:
For constructing a tile floor, the base course is prepared in the same manner as in case of brick flooring.Over the base course thus prepared, a thin layer of lime or cement mortar is spread with the help of screed battens. Then the screeds are properly leveled and fixed at the correct height. When the surface mortar has hardened sufficiently, the specified tiles are laid on a 6 mm thick bed of wet cement mortar.(1:5). The surplus mortar which comes out of the joints is cleaned off. After 3 days, the joints are well rubbed a carborundum stone so as to smoothen the surface, specially the edges.
These floor are used for paving courtyard of buildings. Glazed tiles floors are used in modern buildings where a high class building is desired.
4. Flagstone floor:
The floors whose topping consists of stone slabs is called flagstone floor. The stone slabs used here may not be of the same size but should not be more than 75 cm length and not less than 35 cm in width and 3.8 cm in thickness.
Method of construction of Flagstone Floor:
For constructing a flagstone floor, the same method is applied as in case of tile floor. The slabs are soaked well in water at least one hour before laying. They should be evenly and firmly bedded in mortar. The thickness of joints should not exceed 4mm and they should be struck off with a trowel while laying.
These type of flooring are suitable in go-downs, motor sheds, stores, pavements etc.
The floors whose topping consists of cement concrete is called cement concrete floor or conglomerate floor. These floors consists of 2.5 cm to 5cm thick concrete layer laid over 10 cm thick base concrete and 10 cm thick clean sand over ground whose compaction and consolidation is done. These floors are commonly used these days.
Following are the advantages of concrete floors:
- They are hard & Durable
- Provide a smooth & non absorbent surface
- They are more fire resistant
- They provide more sanitary surface as they can be cleaned & washed easily.
- They are economical as they require negligible maintenance cost
- They can be finished with a pleasing appearance.
Types of cement concrete floors:
- Non-Monolithic or bonded floor finish floor
- Monolithic floor finish floor
How to make a Mosaic Floor
Types of Floor Download PDF