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Types of Failures in Steel Structures


Type of Failures:

  1. Shearing Failure of Bolts.
  2. Bearing Failure of plate.
  3. Tearing failure at edge of plate.

Shearing Failure of Bolt:

Shearing Failure of Bolt

Bearing Failure of Plate:

Bearing Failure of Plate

Shear & Bearing Area

Shear Bearing Area

Tearing Failure at edge of Plate

Tearing Failure edge Plate

Eccentricity of Applied Force:

Plates of lap joint tends to bend.

Eccentricity of Applied Force

Bending produces non uniform bearing of the fastener on the plates

Eccentricity of Applied Force

Tearing failure

Tests showed, failure by tearing through free edge of material will not occur if Le measured parallel to line of applied force is not less dia of bolt multiply ratio of bearing stress to tensile strength of connected part.

Force transmitted by the bolt
P = fp D t ------------------------(A)
Force to cause failure along two shear planes
P = 2(Le - D / 2 ) t u
u = 0.7 Fu
P = 1.4Dt Fu (Le / D -1/2) -----(B)
Equating (A) & (B)

Tearing Failure

Equation ( C ) can be approximated as

So Equation becomes;


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