Municipal Solid Waste Generation & its Disposal Practices in Pakistan
Solid Waste Generation:
Solid waste can be defined as material that no longer has any value to the person who is responsible for it, and is not intended to be discharged through a pipe.
It is generated by domestic, commercial, industrial, health care,agricultural and mineral extraction activities and accumulates in streets and public places. The words "garbage", "trash", "refuse" and "rubbish" are used to refer to some forms of solid waste.
Solid Waste - A Consequence of Life:
From the very first day man has used the From resources but it did not pose a significant problem Disposal of waste traced to time when man began to congregate in tribe, villages and communities Waste generation in Technological Society: With industrial revolution in 19th century century conditions in England were so bad that an urban sanitary act was passed in 1888 prohibiting throwing of solid waste into ditches, rivers,and waters.
Present status in Pakistan
What is Solid Waste Management:
As discipline concerns the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid wastein a manner, that is in accordance with the best principles ofpublic health, economics, engineering, conservation aesthetics, and other environmental considerations, and that is also responsive to public attitudes.
Development of Solid waste Management:
It includes all administrative financial, legal, planning and engineering functions involved in solution of all problems of solid waste.
First book written was "Disposal of Municipal Refuse"1906 telling about waste disposal method:
Methods of Waste Disposal:
Functional Elements of Solid Waste Management:
SWM grouped into Six:
It includes all activities in which a material is identified as no longer for use, for throwaway or gathered together for disposal. Example candy wrapping to be thrown outdoor once consumed. Waste generation steps varies with individual. At present waste generation activity is not controllable.
Handling consist of all activities likeseparation, processing and storage at sourceandassociated management of SW until they are placed in containers for collection. Handling includes movement of loaded containers to the point of collection, separation at source. On site storage is of primary importance because of public health concern and aesthetic consideration.
It includes not only gathering of solid waste and recyclable but also transport of material after collection to the location where vehicle is emptied.
Includes recovery of separated material, separation and processing, components and transformation that occurs primarily in the locations away from the source of generation. Transformation here is used to reduce the volume and weight is reduced and requiring disposal, resource conservation products and finally energy. It can be achieved by a variety of chemical and biological processes like composting.
Disposal of Soild Waste is the last step in solid waste management-land filling or land spreading either directly from source or after processing and recovery of materials, residues of combustion. A modern landfill is not a dump but an engineered facility used for disposing of solid waste on land or within the earths mantle without creating nuisance or hazards to public health or safety
Sources of Solid Waste:
This type of waste is generated from residential areas
Ashes & Residue:
Solid Waste Composition:
Environmental Problems due to Solid Waste:
As water percolates through SW, it makes a leachate that consists of decomposing organic matter combined with iron, mercury, lead, zinc, and other metals from rusting cans, discarded batteries and appliances. It may also contain paints, pesticides, cleaning fluids, newspaper inks, and other chemicals. Contaminated water can have a serious impact on all living creatures, including humans, in an ecosystem.
When burnt heavy metals like lead, toxic gases and smoke spreads over residential areas. The wind also carries waste, dust and gases caused by decomposition. Putrefaction results in bad smells.
Solid Waste Treatment: