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An Experiment on Hydraulic Jump


Objectives of the experiments:

  1. To create the hydraulic jump.

  2. To verify the questions of fluid flow.

  3. To determine the slatrility & characteristics of the hydraulic jump obtained in the lab using Impulse momentum & specific energy equations.

  4. To compare measured flow depths with theoretical results.

Theoretical background:

Hydraulic jumps are very efficient in dissipating the energy of the flow to make it more controllable & les erosive. In engineering practice, the hydraulic jump frequently appears downstream from overflow structures (spillways), or under flow structures (slvice gates), where velocities are height.

A hydraulic jump is formed when liquid at high velocity discharges into a zone of lower velocity only if the 3 independent velocities (y1, y2, fr1) of the hydraulic jump equation conform to the following equation:

Y2 = y1/2 [-1+√1+8Fr2 ]

Fr2 = 92/9y3


  • Glass walled flume with sluice gates & a spillway arrangement
  • Point gauges
  • Manometer & scales
  • Pump

Procedure for Hydraulic Jump Experiment:

  1. I started the pump to supply water to the flume.

  2. Then I closed the tail gate to allow water to accumulate and to develop hydraulic jump.

  3. I adjusted the position of the hydraulic jump by adjusting the amount of closure of slvice gate.

  4. I then measured the depth of the bed of flume by using a point gauge.

  5. In the next step , I measured water surface level before it had crossed the spillway.

  6. Then I measured height of spillway & the depth of water over the spillway.

  7. Using the point gauges I then determined the water surface levels downstream of the jump.

  8. Then I measured y1 & y2.

  9. I repeated the measurement steps again for a different flowchart.


S.No Hm(m) Y1(mm) Y2(mm) Lj(m) H(mn) H1(mn) H2
1 0.8 342 46 2 6.5 24 106 0.45

Sources of errors:

Human errors:

  1. Errors occurred during measurements i.e. by taking erroneous reading of depths or in micrometer.
  2. Errors occurred in operation of slvice gates.

Instrumentation error:

  • Leakage from the flume
  • Assumptions of ideal conditions did not prevail:
  • Ideal conditions which prevailed in the theoretical equations were not there and frictional forces also had some effect on the experiment.
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